Affordable, stable, and accessible housing and robust housing choice are the foundation upon which just and equitable communities are built. However, the power imbalance between renters and landlords puts renters at greater risk of housing instability, harassment, and homelessness and fuels racial inequity.

Tenant protections, passed in the form of laws and policies, are critical to preventing evictions and keeping renters stably housed. During the COVID-19 pandemic, lawmakers recognized the importance of passing legislation aimed at diverting the threat of eviction. When the pandemic led to widescale job losses and increased housing instability, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a nationwide eviction moratorium in September 2020 to prevent renters from eviction. This federal moratorium lasted until July 31, 2021, and helped to prevent evictions for as many as  1.36 million renter households across the country. NLIHC advocates for Congress to enact legislation to establish vital renter protections at a national scale, such as source-of-income protections, right to counsel, and the expansion, strengthening, and enforcement of the “Fair Housing Act.”

Action, however, should not be limited to the federal government. Recognizing the crucial role tenant protections play in preventing evictions and ensuring housing stability, states and localities have passed or implemented a variety of new tenant protections to prevent evictions and keep tenants stably housed.

NLIHC is tracking the passage of tenant protections in jurisdictions across the country and compiling this information into two digital resources featured on this page: a State and Local Tenant Protections Map and a corresponding database. The resources compile and present easy-to-access information about tenant protections around the country and serve as a resource to both support renters who may be facing the threat of eviction and inform the advocacy efforts of local, state, and federal housing champions and tenant leaders to expand tenant protections in their communities.

Note: Many states and local jurisdictions had tenant protections in place prior to January 2021 that are not included in the database below. NLIHC began tracking tenant protections in January 2021 in an effort to identify those protections passed in conjunction with the implementation of the federal Emergency Rental Assistance Program. For a comprehensive database of tenant protections existing before January 2021, please see the LSC Eviction Laws Database at: https://bit.ly/3KpK7yu. For more information, email [email protected]

Resources Description
Just Cause Report The State Of Statewide Tenant Protections released in May 2023, provides information highlighting the efforts of state-level lawmakers to pass tenant protections that keep renters stably housed and prevent unjust discrimination and harassment both before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The brief also provides in-depth summaries of common tenant protections, details the challenges faced by lawmakers enacting protections, and offers recommendations for developing and implementing laws aiming to protect renters over the long term. The brief includes more than 64 state-level protections passed since the start of the pandemic, including protections such as the civil right to counsel, measures prohibiting source-of-income discrimination, eviction record sealing and expungement legislation, rent stabilization and anti-rent gouging legislation, and “just cause” eviction laws.
Just Cause Report Eviction Record Sealing and Expungement Toolkit released in April 2023, provides an overview about eviction record sealing and expungement protections nationwide, surveys record sealing and expungement legislation that is currently in place nationwide, identifies the core components of existing protections, and makes recommendations for lawmakers developing new eviction record sealing and expungement protections in their jurisdictions. The toolkit also brings together a wide range of information about the status and impact of evictions in the U.S. and existing eviction record sealing and expungement policies, as well as answers to frequently asked questions.
Just Cause Report Promoting Housing Stability through Just Cause Eviction Legislation released in May 2022,  provides an overview of the goals of just cause legislation, shares examples of existing just cause protections, and offers recommendations about ways to advance just cause legislation at the local, state, and federal levels. Just cause – also known as “good cause” or “for cause” – eviction laws are legal protections that make the lease renewal process more predictable, empower tenants to advocate for better living conditions without fear of retaliation, provide limits on exorbitant rental increases to prevent renters from becoming extremely rent-burdened or experiencing displacement, and promote long-term housing stability for low-income and marginalized renters.

Tenant Protections report

Tenant Protections and Emergency Rental Assistance During and Beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic, released in January 2022, provides a descriptive analysis of new tenant protections and emergency rental assistance (ERA)-related policies enacted or implemented by states and local governments in 2021.  The report includes more than 130 state and local tenant protections including state and local eviction moratoriums, pauses on the eviction process to allow for ERA processing, mandates to increase access to information and limit tenant fees, increases to tenant representation during the eviction process, and protections that reduce discrimination, as well as recommendations to advance protections moving forward.

ERASE Tenant Protections State and Local Maps

Instructions

Click on the magnifying glass to make the search bar appear. Type your state, county, city, or zip code and hit 'enter' to zoom to the location. The buttons below the search box provide options to 'pan', 'zoom', and return to the original extent on the map.

*Households may receive multiple rounds of assistance, resulting in some double counting of households served. States with a number of households served greater than the estimated number of cost-burdened, low-income renter households are coded as 100%.

  • States with New Tenant Protections Since January 2021

    Click here if the state map does not load. Please note you will leave NLIHC and will be taken to Tableau site where the map is hosted.

    Sources: NLIHC Tenant Protections Database; U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey; U.S. Census Bureau, Household Pulse Survey; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Emergency Rental Assistance Program Monthly Compliance Report.

  • Localities with New Tenant Protections Since January 2021

    Click here if the local map does not load. Please note you will leave NLIHC and will be taken to Tableau site where the map is hosted.

    Sources: NLIHC Tenant Protections Database; U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey; U.S. Census Bureau, Household Pulse Survey; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Emergency Rental Assistance Program Monthly Compliance Report.

ERASE State and Local Tenant Protections Database

The ERASE State and Local Tenant Protections Database provides information about protections passed or implemented that have assisted in preventing evictions and keeping renters stably housed. The database tracks state and local tenant protections passed since the onset of COVID-19 as well as specific tenant protections that were in place prior to 2021, such as right to counsel, source-of-income discrimination, eviction record sealing and expungement legislation, anti-rent gouging measures, and just cause eviction laws. The database also identifies states that have preemption legislation in place.

Information provided in the database includes the jurisdiction, implementing authority, year passed, status, a brief description of each protection, and a link to more information.

The information collected in the database was gathered through NLIHC research and tracking as well as through partnerships with our local, state, and national partners who have been working to collect and track the passage of tenant protections included in the database. These partners include members of the ERASE Cohort, the Poverty & Race Research Action Council, the National Coalition for a Civil Right to Counsel, Legal Services Corporation, and Power Switch Action.

  • For more information on source-of-income discrimination laws, please visit the Poverty & Race Research Action Council’s website here.
  • For more information on right-to-counsel laws, please visit the National Coalition for a Civil Right to Counsel’s website here.
  • For more information on eviction laws, including information about notice periods for nonpayment of rent, please visit Legal Services Corporation’s website here.
  • For more information on state preemptions laws, please visit Power Switch Action’s website here.

Please contact the ERASE Project at [email protected] with any questions.

Are you aware of a tenant protection that is NOT currently on NLIHC's State and Local Tenant Protections database? Please email the ERASE Project team at [email protected] or complete this form (https://forms.gle/8zx2PU5QaxsrEoLP9) to submit a new protection for our database. With your help, we can make it easier for tenants and advocates to learn what protections are available in their states and localities to keep them stably housed.


0 States have passed tenant protections (including Washington DC and Puerto Rico)

0 Localities have passed tenant protections

0 State and Local Tenant Protection Preemptions

Implementing Authority
(includes preemption legislation)

Status

0 Total # of Protections Passed or Implemented

Click here to download the table. Please note you will be taken to Google Sheets where you can download the spreadsheet. You can also use the searchable tool below to look up state, territory, tribe, or locality for the city or county you reside in.

Note: Under the total number of protections passed or implemented, there are a number of protections that are cross listed, meaning a single protection could be listed under multiple categories.
State / Territory Jurisdiction Implementing Authority Number Year Passed Status Description Link Category